The best studies open up new avenues of research. You must clearly distinguish material that would normally be included in a research article from any raw data or other appendix material that would not be published. In a minute or less a reader can learn the rationale behind the study, general approach to the problem, pertinent results, and important conclusions or new questions.
The reader may only be interested in one formula or part of a procedure. General style Specific editorial requirements for submission of a manuscript will always supercede instructions in these general guidelines. This area of corporate writing is often engaged in responding to proposals.
Analyze your data, then prepare the analyzed converted data in the form of a figure graphtable, or in text form. The writer can now go directly to summarizing the results.
Documentation style used in a discipline In doing so, consider which style will be most appropriate for your area of specialization.
When you refer to information, distinguish data generated by your own studies from published information or from information obtained from other students verb tense is an important tool for accomplishing that purpose. Writing an abstract Write your summary after the rest of the paper is completed.
To help you become an accomplished writer, you will prepare several research papers based upon the studies completed in lab. Writing a discussion Interpret your data in the discussion in appropriate depth. Recommendations for specific papers will provide additional suggestions. If you make the four points listed above, you will need a minimum of four paragraphs.
Explain all of your observations as much as possible, focusing on mechanisms. Never include raw data or intermediate calculations in a research paper. After all, the paper will be submitted after all of the work is completed.
It prescribes methods for citing references within the text, providing a list of works cited at the end of the paper, and even formatting headings and margins. Choosing the appropriate documentation style for your paper may depend on three factors: Try to keep the first two items to no more than one sentence each.
It is important to fully understand the documentation style to be used in your paper, and to apply it consistently. To be concise, present methods under headings devoted to specific procedures or groups of procedures Generalize - report how procedures were done, not how they were specifically performed on a particular day.
Figures and tables Either place figures and tables within the text of the result, or include them in the back of the report following Literature Cited - do one or the other If you place figures and tables at the end of the report, make sure they are clearly distinguished from any attached appendix materials, such as raw data Regardless of placement, each figure must be numbered consecutively and complete with caption caption goes under the figure Regardless of placement, each table must be titled, numbered consecutively and complete with heading title with description goes above the table Each figure and table must be sufficiently complete that it could stand on its own, separate from text Discussion Journal guidelines vary.
The reader does not want to read everything you know about a subject. Do not include commonly found supplies such as test tubes, pipet tips, beakers, etc.
Double check the quotation for accuracy before you return the source to the library. If your results differ from your expectations, explain why that may have happened. For example, the Bradford assay is well known. This type of documentation is often prepared by attorneys or paralegals who could be in private practice or retained as corporate council.
Materials may be reported in a separate paragraph or else they may be identified along with your procedures. Refer to generally accepted facts and principles in present tense.
Space is so valuable in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, that authors are asked to restrict discussions to four pages or less, double spaced, typed.
Refer to work done by specific individuals including yourself in past tense. If you write out quotations or data from a source, be sure to note the number of the page s on which the information appears in the original.
What to avoid Do not discuss or interpret your results, report background information, or attempt to explain anything. Organize your ideas, making one major point with each paragraph. It is never appropriate to simply state that the data agreed with expectations, and let it drop at that.
Decide if each hypothesis is supported, rejected, or if you cannot make a decision with confidence. See the examples in the writing portfolio package Report the methodology not details of each procedure that employed the same methodology Describe the mehodology completely, including such specifics as temperatures, incubation times, etc.
If you prefer, you may place your figures and tables appropriately within the text of your results section.What is a Research Paper? "Research paper." What image comes into mind as you hear those words: working with stacks of articles and.
Free special needs papers, essays, and research papers. Formatting your Paper & Works Cited List Because knowledge is a cumulative process built on the research and writing of other researchers, your instructor needs to see the quality of the sources you used and know how developed your ideas.
What Information Should Be Cited and Why? If you have already cited the ideas earlier in your paper that you are summarizing in your conclusion, you do not need to cite them again. However, if you are bringing in new ideas, be sure to cite them.
Needs a Citation: This Davidson College Library Research Guides are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike THE DOCUMENTED ESSAY General Guidelines.
A research paper or documented essay is a piece of writing in which you incorporate information—facts, arguments, opinions—taken from the writings of authorities in a particular or material that needs to be rearranged to produce.
About Documentation Styles.
What are documentation styles? A documentation style is a standard approach to the citation of sources that the author of a paper has consulted, abstracted, or quoted from. make the process of applying any documentation style easier if you keep good notes while you perform research.Download